Coreenii se mişcă repede: Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

Autor: Dan Vache acum 10 ani Prezentari

HYUNDAI SONATA HYBRID DEBUTS AT NEW YORK AUTO SHOW

Breakthrough Lithium Polymer Batteries Leapfrog Existing
Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-Ion
Technology

NEW YORK, March 31, 2010 – As global automakers work out
implementation timing for new fuel-efficient powertrain
technologies such as gasoline direct-injection (GDI), twin-scroll
turbochargers, and full-hybrid powertrains, Hyundai announced today
that the all-new 2011 Hyundai Sonata is the first vehicle in the
industry to offer all three technologies with the new Sonata 2.0T
(turbo) and Sonata Hybrid joining the hot-selling GDI-equipped
Sonata in Hyundai showrooms later this year.

At the New York auto show today, Hyundai unveiled its 2011 Sonata
Hybrid, changing the game in hybrids with unique approaches in
hybrid powertrain design, battery technology and vehicle
appearance. The Sonata Hybrid is Hyundai’s first hybrid in the U.S.
market.

„The Hyundai Sonata Hybrid is the new kid on the block, but it’s
not a follower,” says John Krafcik, president and CEO, Hyundai
Motor America. „Its full parallel hybrid configuration and
breakthough lithium polymer batteries offer a new take on
traditional hybrid design, while its unique design sets it apart
from the mid-size hybrid pack.”

The Hyundai-developed Hybrid Blue Drive architecture is a full
parallel hybrid drive system, which can operate on an electric
motor, gasoline internal combustion engine, and a combination of
the two depending on driving conditions and driver demands.
Hyundai’s proprietary full parallel architecture differs from the
power split technology used by most competitors, allowing
significant efficiency advantages at higher speeds. Hyundai Hybrid
Blue Drive is the first and only system using lithium polymer
battery technology – leapfrogging competitive in-market
nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion applications. Lithium polymer
offers the benefits of lithium-ion, a technology used in laptops
and cell phones, but adds robustness, power-density and package
flexibility, making it ideal for automotive applications. Hyundai
Hybrid Blue Drive also is unique in its use of the company’s own
highly efficient, compact new 6-speed transmission, modified with
hybrid starter-generator, electric motor, and low-friction oil
pump, which together allow the elimination of the traditional
torque converter.

Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive is a new addition to a full suite of
eco-focused products and technologies that Hyundai offers in its
goal to be the auto industry’s global eco-leader. According to the
EPA, Hyundai has led the U.S. industry in fuel economy for 2008 and
2009, and is currently the only automaker with average fleet fuel
economy of more than 30 miles per gallon.

„Hyundai applies advanced technologies to vehicles to provide the
best solutions for the everyday driver,” said Krafcik. „Unlike
traditional hybrids that trade off highway fuel economy for higher
city ratings, the Sonata Hybrid delivers best-in-class highway fuel
economy, while still delivering about a 40 percent improvement in
city fuel economy compared to a Sonata equipped with the Theta II
GDI engine. We think this is a better balanced approach for the
majority of car buyers.”

PERFORMANCE

Sonata Hybrid’s projected best-in-class highway fuel economy of 39
mpg offers significant benefit to hybrid owners with highway
commutes, while also offering outstanding city fuel economy of 37
mpg. Government studies have shown that the typical U.S. driver
operates in a highway mode 57 percent of the time. Hyundai’s
approach to deliver class-leading fuel economy in highway mode
provides a unique solution in the mid-size sedan hybrid market, and
differentiates Sonata Hybrid from the likes of Toyota Camry Hybrid
and Ford Fusion Hybrid. Sonata Hybrid delivers typical hybrid fuel
economy gains in the city like its competitors, but also gives
owners outstanding fuel economy on the highway, where these
competitors fall short.

Sonata Hybrid delivers class-leading electric-vehicle operation at
steady-state speeds of up to 62 miles per hour. Gasoline engine
engagement depends on state of charge, acceleration and vehicle
speed. Its two propulsion units develop a total output of 209
horsepower at 6,000 rpm, exceeding all mid-size competitors, and
195 lb-ft of torque. The weight-efficient architecture of the new
Sonata platform, combined with the lightweight lithium polymer
battery pack, make the Sonata Hybrid the lightest vehicle in the
segment, at just 3,457 pounds, 263 pounds lighter than the Fusion
Hybrid. Combined with Sonata’s best-in-class horsepower rating,
Sonata Hybrid has a significant advantage in power-to-weight ratio,
a key enabler of both performance and efficiency.

Hyundai’s proprietary parallel hybrid drive system is the heart of
the Sonata Hybrid. The competition uses a power split system with a
planetary-geared Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This is
where the Sonata Hybrid gains a key advantage. Competing hybrid
models use electric motors that have to power a planetary gear set.
By utilizing a full parallel drive system, Sonata Hybrid uses the
power from the electric motor more efficiently to directly control
the vehicle, allowing it to be operated at much higher speeds than
the competition in EV-only mode. This technology is also a key
enabler of Sonata Hybrid’s best-in-class highway fuel
economy.

SONATA HYBRID VERSUS ITS RIVALS
2011 Sonata Hybrid2011 Toyota Camry Hybrid2010 Nissan
Altima Hybrid2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid2010 Lexus HS250h
Engine

2.4-liter
2.4-liter
2.5-liter
2.5-liter
2.4-liter
Engine hp
169 hp
147 hp
158 hp
156 hp
147 hp
Engine torque
156 lb-ft
138 lb-ft
162 lb-ft
136 lb-ft
138 lb-ft
Electric
Motor hp
40.2 hp
141 hp
40 hp
106 hp
147 hp
Electric
Motor torque
151.2 lb-ft @ 0-1,400 rpm
199 lb-ft @
0-1,500 rpm
199 lb-ft @
0-1,500 rpm
166 lb-ft
138 lb-ft
Hybrid system net power output
209 hp
187 hp
198 hp
191 hp
187 hp
Hybrid
system
Parallel
Power Split
Power Split
Power Split
Power Split
Trans.
6-speed
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
Battery type
Lithium Polymer
Nickel-Metal Hydride
Nickel-Metal Hydride
Nickel-Metal Hydride
Nickel-Metal Hydride
EV only operation limit
62 mph
42 mph
42 mph
47 mph
42 mph
Fuel economy
city/ hwy
37/39 mpg
(est.)
33/34 mpg
35/33 mpg
41/36 mpg
35/34 mpg
Curb wt.
3,457 lb
3,680 lb
3,469.8 lb
3,720 lb
3,682 lb
Power to wt. ratio (lbs./total system power
16.54
19.68
17.52
19.48
19.69
Pass. Vol.
104 cu ft
101 cu ft
101 cu ft
101 cu ft
90 cu ft

HYUNDAI’S HYBRID BLUE DRIVE ARCHITECTURE

Hyundai’s Hybrid Blue Drive is a proprietary parallel hybrid drive
system that runs on the already fuel-efficient 2.4-liter Theta II
engine (169 horsepower at 6,000 rpm and 156 lb-ft of torque at
4,500 rpm) mated to a 6-speed automatic transmission and a 30kW
(151 lb-ft) electric motor for maximum fuel economy. Hyundai’s
Hybrid Blue Drive has an all-electric mode and a parallel drive
mode. This means the wheels are turned by power coming directly
from the gasoline engine, or the electric motor, or both together,
as conditions demand. This parallel hybrid drive architecture will
serve as the foundation for future hybrid drive vehicles to be
developed by Hyundai.

In the Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive system, the Theta II with
multi-port fuel injection (MPI) operates on an Atkinson Cycle.
Atkinson Cycle is a type of internal combustion engine strategy
designed to dramatically increase fuel efficiency through changes
in compression and power strokes in the four stroke engine. It is
typically only used in hybrid systems where the high-torque
electric motor boosts low-end power, which is traded off for
internal combustion engine efficiency. By combining the electric
motor and the Atkinson Cycle engine, the Hybrid Blue Drive system
delivers best-in-class highway hybrid efficiency.

To further improve fuel economy, all of the Theta II major
driveline and cooling system components have been optimized to
reduce friction, while the crankcase has been filled with low
friction oil. Hybrid Power Control (HPC) management software
automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a
halt, cutting emissions to zero. When pressure is reapplied to the
accelerator pedal, the Hybrid Starter Generator (HSG) automatically
restarts the engine. This control strategy assures that maximum
efficiency is achieved during gentle acceleration and greater power
is immediately available during full acceleration. During
deceleration, braking regeneration comes into play. Sonata Hybrid
also features „smart brake” technology in which braking input
over-rides accelerator pedal input.

The high-tech, all-aluminum, 16-valve engine also features
Continuously Variable Valve Timing (CVVT) on both camshafts and
newly developed engine components to reduce friction. This
optimized Theta II engine achieves 10 percent better fuel
consumption over a conventional Theta II engine.

Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive uses the company’s proprietary 6-speed
automatic transmission rather than a conventional hybrid’s CVT.
Hyundai’s strategy involves an adaptation of the modular 6-speed
transmission, replacing the torque converter with an electric motor
and high-efficiency oil pump. This technique uses a traditional
step-shift 6-speed transmission rather than a CVT to provide a more
traditional shift feel that is preferred by customers and sometimes
artificially replicated in CVT applications. This saves on cost,
making the Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive system a better value. It is a
more robust and elegantly simple solution to a complicated
engineering challenge.

Fuel efficiency improvements are evident throughout Sonata Hybrid.
For example, the top three gear ratios in the transmission have
been extended to ensure the engine runs at lower RPMs, the electric
motor-assisted steering system reduces demands on the engine, and
low resistance tires further optimize fuel economy.

  • Hybrid Blue Drive is made up of the following major
    components:
  • An efficient 30kW electric motor delivering 151 lb-ft of
    torque
  • A regenerative braking system
  • An integrated starter generator that enables the engine to turn
    off at stops and restart automatically under acceleration
  • A breakthrough lithium polymer battery package, with 5.3 Ah of
    capacity at 270 volts
  • A fuel-efficient Theta II 2.4-liter engine
  • 6-speed automatic transmission with an improved efficiency
    electric oil pump
  • Weight-efficient architecture coupled with a low drag
    coefficient (.25 Cd target)
  • Electric air conditioning compressor
  • Hybrid power control unit

LITHIUM POLYMER BATTERY TECHNOLOGY

Sonata’s hybrid system stores its electrical charge in a 270V
lithium polymer rechargeable battery (5.3Ah/270V) that surpasses
existing nickel-metal hydride and pending lithium-ion applications.
Lithium polymer batteries are more durable and space-efficient than
other hybrid batteries. They are also more weight-efficient. The
Sonata Hybrid’s battery pack weighs just 95.9 pounds versus the
Camry Hybrid’s 123.9 pounds. The compact battery pack resides in
the forward portion of the trunk to maximize cargo space.

Lithium Polymer Batteries vs. Nickel-Metal Hydride
Batteries

Compared with nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium polymer
batteries deliver the same power with 20-30 percent less weight, 40
percent less volume and 10 percent greater efficiency over the
nickel-metal hydride batteries found in today’s hybrids. Lithium
polymer batteries offer 1.7 times more energy density than
nickel-metal hydride batteries, allowing Hyundai engineers to
devote less space and weight to the battery pack. Lithium polymer
batteries hold their charge 1.25 times longer. Lithium polymer
batteries also are more resistant to changes in temperature, which
improves cycle life. Additionally, lithium polymer’s self-discharge
rate is less than a third of a nickel-metal hydride battery.

Lithium Polymer Batteries vs. Lithium-ion
Batteries

Lithium-polymer has significant advantages over lithium-ion,
including higher energy density and lower manufacturing costs.
Lithium polymer is more resistant to physical damage and can handle
more charge-discharge cycles before storage capacity begins to
degrade. Lithium polymer technology also offers significant
advantages in thermal robustness and safety.

A key difference between traditional lithium ion batteries and
Hyundai’s lithium polymer battery solution is the overall packaging
of the cell – the anode, the cathode, the electrolyte, and the
encasement material. Traditional lithium-ion batteries, like those
found in laptops, use what’s known as the 18650 cell format. In
this format, each mass-produced cell is 18 mm. in diameter and 65
mm. tall, which is a bit larger than a „AA” battery. Each of these
small metal cylinders is filled with a liquid electrolyte that
facilitates the movement of lithium ions across anode and cathode,
creating the battery current.

Traditional lithium-ion batteries are easy to handle, withstand
mild internal pressures, and have been around in various forms
since 1991. That means a manufacturing infrastructure is in place,
and economies of scale are reasonably high. However, they do have
several disadvantages. For example, their cylindrical shape reduces
packaging efficiency and they are surprisingly complicated to
manufacture since they have so many small parts. These small parts
make them robust to thermal fluctuations and add significant cost
and weight to the overall battery system. Cell-to-cell consistency
also is extremely critical in a vehicle battery package, since the
pack is only as robust as its weakest cell. Traditional lithium-ion
batteries have considerable cell-to-cell variation, while Hyundai’s
lithium polymer batteries deliver outstanding cell-to-cell
consistency.

Lithium polymer technology uses a completely different approach.
Rather than using a liquid electrolyte, which requires a robust
metal casing, lithium polymer batteries use a polymer gel as the
electrolyte, which allows the use of a thinner and lighter
aluminum-walled encasement, or pouch. Inside each lithium polymer
cell, the cathode, separator, and anode are laminated together,
enabling much simpler and more reliable manufacturing. This allows
the battery pack to be about 20 percent smaller than a lithium-ion
battery pack, making it much easier to change the cell footprint to
fit the nooks and crannies of available vehicle space.

Hyundai and its battery supplier, LG Chem, have spent hundreds of
hours testing the Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive lithium polymer battery
system. This testing has proven that Hyundai’s lithium polymer
technology has greater thermal and mechanical stability than
existing systems, meaning better safety and performance.

Another key engineering challenge for Hyundai Hybrid Blue Drive has
been assuring maintenance-free battery operation over the vehicle’s
life – at least 10 years, and 150,000 miles – in all weather
conditions. Heat is the enemy of battery cycle life. Hyundai’s
thermal imaging testing shows how much cooler a lithium polymer
battery is compared to today’s nickel-metal hydride battery or a
conventional lithium-ion battery. Consumers will notice these
advantages in improved useful life and lower maintenance
costs.

FLUIDIC SCULPTURE DESIGN ADDS A UNIQUE ECO
FLAIR

Hyundai designers have taken Sonata’s fluidic sculpture design
language a bit further with Sonata Hybrid, making it even more
aerodynamic. The goal was a modern, eco-friendly design, with
„at-a-glance” differentiation from the non-hybrid Sonata
models.

Unique exterior design elements

  • Headlights and taillights
  • Aerodynamic bumper fascias
  • Aerodynamic rocker panels
  • Bold hexagonal grille
  • Eco-spoke wheels
  • Air dam and aero side sills
  • Hybrid Blue Drive badging
  • Exclusive hybrid paint color

Interior refinements

  • Supervision cluster with eco-display options
  • Unique interior color choice
  • Unique seat patterns

The Sonata Hybrid also offers drivers a way to be more engaged in
fuel-efficient driving thanks to Hyundai’s Hybrid Technology
Display. The Hybrid Technology Display is featured on a 4.2-inch
LCD screen located between the odometer and tachometer, or is
visible on the optional seven-inch navigation screen. It features
the following information:

  • Driving mode
  • Energy flow within the vehicle
  • Engine and motor movement
  • Fuel level
  • Battery power levels and charge status
  • Electric vehicle mode indicator
  • Average and instant mpg

The Hybrid Technology Display’s most unique feature is an Eco Level
scoring system. The high definition display acknowledges
eco-focused driving with eight levels of sky color, ranging from
gray to bright blue. It also accumulates points in Total Eco mode
over time. An Eco Guide also provides instant fuel economy
feedback.

Sonata Hybrid
ENGINE
Type
DOHC CVVT (Continuously Variable Valve Timing)
2.4-liter Theta II
Materials
Aluminum block and head
Bore & Stroke
88.0 mm x 97.0 mm
Displacement
2,359 cc
Horsepower (estimated)
169 hp @ 6,000 rpm
Torque (estimated)
156 lb-ft @ 4,250 rpm
Valves per cylinder
4
Compression ratio
13:1
Hybrid type
Parallel
Electric Motor
Horsepower (estimated)
40.2 hp (30kW) @ 1,400-6,000 rpm
Torque (estimated)
151.2 lb-ft (205 Nm) @ 0-1,400 rpm
Motor type
Interior-Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Voltage
Max. 270V
Hybrid System Performance Combined
Horsepower (estimated)
209.2 hp @ 6,000 rpm
Torque (estimated)
195.4 lb-ft
Battery
Power output
34kW
Type
Lithium polymer battery
Voltage
270V
Weight
95.9 lbs
Capacity
5.3 Ah
Electric-vehicle operation
Limit of 62 mph
TRANSMISSION
Six-speed electronic automatic without lock-up torque
converter
Gear ratios
First
4.212:1
Second
2.637:1
Third
1.800:1
Fourth
1.386:1
Fifth
1.000:1
Sixth
0.772:1
Reverse
3.385:1
Final drive
3.320:1
SUSPENSION
Front
MacPherson strut with gas-charged hydraulic twin tube shock
absorbers and stabilizer bar
Rear
Independent multi-link design with coil springs, gas-charged
hydraulic twin tube shock absorbers and stabilizer bar
STEERING
Type
Rack & Pinion, power assisted
Overall Ratio
14.5:1
Turns, lock to lock
2.94
Turning circle
35.8 ft.

BRAKES/TIRES/WHEELS
Front
Power-assisted 11.8-in. ventilated disc, 1 pot-caliper brake
with pad wear warning device
Rear
Power-assisted 11.2-in. ventilated disc, 1 pot-caliper brake
with pad wear warning device
ABS
4-wheel, 4-channel and 4-sensor with Electronic Brake-force
Distribution (EBD)
Tires
P205/65R16
P215/55R17 (optional)
Tire mobility kit ; T125/80D16 (spare tire – optional)
Wheels
6.5J x 16-in.
7.5J x 17-in. (optional)
EXTERIOR DIMENSIONS
Wheelbase
110.0 in.
Overall length
189.8 in.
Overall width
72.2 in.
Overall height
57.7 in.
Coefficient of drag (Cd)
0.25 (target)
Wheel tread, front/rear
16-in. tire: 62.9 in. / 62.9 in.
17-in. tire: 62.6 in. / 62.6 in.
Overhang, front/rear
37.0 in. / 42.7 in.
INTERIOR DIMENSIONS
Head room
Front
40.0 in.
Rear
37.8 in.
Leg room
Front
45.5 in.
Rear
34.6 in.
Shoulder room
Front
57.9 in.
Rear
56.7 in.
Hip room
Front
55.2 in.
Rear
54.9 in.
EPA passenger volume
103.8 cu. ft.
EPA cargo volume
10.7 cu. ft.
EPA total volume
114.5 cu. ft.
CAPACITIES
Fuel
17.2 gallons
Oil
4.3 quarts
Coolant
6.6 quarts
CURB WEIGHT
Six-speed automatic
3,457 – 3,578 lbs
FUEL ECONOMY
City
Highway
Combined
Six-speed automatic (estimated)
37 mpg
39 mpg
38 mpg

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